different types of vitamins

The word ‘Vitamin’ is derived from the word ‘Vital’ which means important for life. Vitamins are the chemical compounds present in food in very small quantity required for important for normal metabolism and health. Unlike other nutrients like carbohydrate, fat, mineral, protein, there are different types of vitamins that are divided into two main groups Fat soluble vitamins and water soluble Vitamins.

Different types of vitamins that are Fat-soluble

Vitamin A

The chemical name is Retinol. Vitamin A is present in food such as Cream, egg yolk, Liver, Fish oil, Milk, cheese and butter. It is not present in vegetable fats and oils but is added to margarine during manufacture, It can be formed in the body from certain carotene, the main dietary sources of Vitamin A are green leafy vegetable, cabbage, red and yellow fruits and vegetables and carrots. Vitamin A and Carotine are only absorbed by the small intestine, if fat is absorbed normally. The daily dietary requirement is 600 to 700 Mg.

The main function of Vitamin A in the body:

  • Generation of light sensitivity pigment rhodopsin(visual purple) in the retina of the eye.
  • It is important in fast growing cell such as epithelial cells covering both internal and external body surfaces
  • Increases Immunity and defense against infection
  • Promotion in bone growth.
  • It is required for the metabolism occurring in every cell of the body.
  • It is necessary for the growth of the body

Diseases caused by deficiency of Vitamin A

  • Night Blindness
  • drying of the skin, teeth trouble, burning of mucous membrane
  • Weight loss
  • Kidney stone appearing in the urinary track
  • swelling of the body, increase of uric acid in blood
  • anemia, Development of respiratory infections, ears and nose infections
  • stunted growth

Vitamin D

The chemical name is calciferol, This vitamin D is present in foods such as Fish liver oils, milk, cheese, egg yolk, irradiated 7-dehydrocholesterol in human skin. Human body itself will produce Vitamin D when 7-dehydrocholesterol present in the human skin come into contact with the sun rays. The daily dietary requirement is 10Mg.

The main function of Vitamin D in the body:

  • It facilitates the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the maintenance of healthy bones and teeth

deficiency of Vitamin D causes Rickets the disease in children, here the bone become soft, the spinal column and the bones of leg and arms becomes bend and teeth suffer from caries.

Vitamin E

The chemical name is Tocopherols, Vitamin E is present in foods such as Egg yolk, butter, milk, green vegetables and nuts. The daily dietary requirement is 3-4Mg.

The main function of Vitamin E in the body:

It is useful in the metabolism of fats, controls catabolism, It prevents heart disease, diabetes, asthma, thrombosis, diseases of blood-vessels and degenerative changes of the spine.

Deficiency of Vitamin E Causes repeated abortions as conception cannot occur without an adequate quantity if vitamin E.

Vitamin K

The chemical name is phylloquinone, Vitamin K is present in food such as Leafy vegetables, fish, liver and Fruits. The daily dietary requirement is 60-70Mg.It is manufactured in the intestines by the bacterial flora that in habits this organ.

The main function of Vitamin K in the body:

Formation of prothrombin in the liver it maintains the normal rate of blood coagulations.

deficiency of Vitamin K causes slow blood clotting and hemorrhages in newborn.

Different types of Vitamins that are Water Soluble

Vitamin B complex

Vitamin B complex is composed of many constituents they include Vitamin B1 , Vitamin B2 , Niacin, Vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folate.

Vitamin B1 : The Chemical name is Thiamine. Vitamin B1 is present in food such as pulses, cereals, sprouted wheat, unpolished rice, soybeans, milk, green leafy vegetables, This vitamin is destroys when food is cooked in the opened air.The daily dietary requirement is 0.8-1Mg.

The main function of Vitamin B1 in the body:

It stimulates appetite, activates muscles, important for the metabolism and digestion of food

deficiency of vitamin B1 causes increasing in piruvic acid in blood which reduces the working capability and efficiency of the heart, and also caused beri-beri that is difficulty in walking,loss of feeling and speech problem.

Vitamin B2 : The chemical name is Riboflavin. Vitamin B2 is present in food such as Milk, Yeast, soybeans, sprouted wheat, Papaya, Banana etc. The daily dietary requirement is 1-1.3Mg.

The main function of Vitamin B2 in the body:

It maintains the intracellular metabolism, it regulates health, growth, development of resistance power and longevity, it prevents youthfulness, strengthens muscles, increase eyesight, contributes proper digestion. this Vitamin is destroys when exposed to light.

deficiency of vitamin B2 causes malfunction of salivary and pituitary glands, decrease in metabolism, diseases of digestive system, skin disease and weakness of muscles.

Vitamin B3 : The Chemical name is Niacin(Nicotinic acid and Nicotinamide). Niacin is present in food such as food grains, milk, yeast, potatoes etc. If bran is removed from the food most of the niacin content is lost. The daily dietary requirement is 12-17Mg. The function of this niacin is it maintains appetite and mental health.Niacin deficiency causes pellagra, insomnia, headache and skin disease.

Vitamin B6 : The Chemical Name is Pyridoxine. It is present in food such as milk, vegetables, and husk of the food grains.The daily dietary requirement is 1.2-1.4Mg. the function of this vitamin B6 it is necessary in the metabolism of proteins. Its deficiency causes diseases of skin, liver, blood vessels and nervous system.

Vitamin B12 :The chemical name is Cobalamins. Vitamin B12 is present in food such as Liver, Milk, moulds, fermenting liquor and egg. The daily dietary requirement is 1.5Mg. The main functions is DNA Synthesis. its deficiency affects the production of DNA, a very element in the cells of the body and causes Megaloblastic anemia, Degeneration of nerve fibres of the spinal cord.

Vitamin B9 Folic acid: It is one of the constituents of Vitamin B Complex. It is present in food such as Dark green vegetables, Liver ,Kidney, Eggs. The daily dietary requirement is 200Mg.The Main function is DNA synthesis, Normal Development of the spinal cord in early pregnancy. Its deficiency causes Anemia, increases incidence of spina bifida.

Pantothenic Acid : It is one of the constituents of Vitamin B Complex. It is present in food such as Liver ,yeast, egg yolk and fresh vegetables. The daily dietary requirement is 3-7Mg.The main function is it maintains amino acids and metabolism. Its deficiency is still Unknown.

Biotin: It is the constituents of Vitamin B Complex. It is present in food such as Yeasts , kidney, liver, pulses and nuts. The daily dietary requirement is 10-200Mg.Its main function is carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Its deficiency causes Dermatitis, Conjunctivitis, Hypercholesterolemia.

Vitamin C: The Chemical name is Ascorbic Acid. It is present in food such as Citrus fruits, berries, currants, Green Vegetables, Potatoes, Liver, Glandular of animals. The daily dietary requirement is 40Mg. Its main function is it is necessary in formation of collagen, Maturation of RBCs Antioxidant. Its deficiency causes Multiple hemorrhages, slow wound healing, Anemia, gross deficiency cause scurvy and diseases of teeth.

Different types of vitamins and their function

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